Spring Support

A lot has changed since Jolokia initial release. While Spring Framework was already popular back then, in the meantime we’ve observed a general shift away from XML into Java and annotation-based configuration.

W also can’t forget about popularity of Spring Boot.

Support for Jolokia in Spring Boot

Jolokia support was added to Spring Boot in version 0.5.0. It was Jolokia 1.1.5.

Jolokia support is based on the concept of actuator and when Spring Boot detects Jolokia libraries on the CLASSPATH, special /actuator/jolokia endpoint becomes available.

Spring Boot uses auto-configuration to detect potential @Configuration classes and this mechanism is described in Locating Auto-configuration Candidates chapter of Spring Boot documentation.

In particular, org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-actuator-autoconfigure library declares org.springframework.boot.actuate.autoconfigure.jolokia.JolokiaEndpointAutoConfiguration in /META-INF/spring/org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfiguration.imports and when Jolokia libraries are available on the CLASSPATH, special org.springframework.boot.actuate.autoconfigure.jolokia.JolokiaEndpoint annotated with @org.springframework.boot.actuate.endpoint.web.annotation.ServletEndpoint is available. This makes Jolokia’s AgentServlet part of actuator infrastructure of Spring Boot.

However, Spring Boot 3, which moved to JDK 17 and JakartaEE 9+ removed support for Jolokia in org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-actuator-autoconfigure. See this issue for more details.

The following paragraphs describe support for Spring Framework and Spring Boot in Jolokia (so the opposite of the above).

Adding Jolokia Spring support library

Maven users can simply add this dependency to their project:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.jolokia</groupId>
  <artifactId>jolokia-support-spring</artifactId>
  <version>2.0.1</version>
</dependency>

Transitive dependencies for Jolokia core and service libraries will be automatically available.

Support for Spring Framework in Jolokia

Fundamental support for integrating Jolokia with Spring Framework application is through XML Schema Authoring.

Using custom XML Schema available here we can author Spring XML configuration files where Jolokia agent can easily be declared.

Here’s an example Spring XML configuration which starts org.jolokia.support.spring.SpringJolokiaAgent (an extension of Jolokia JVM Agent's org.jolokia.jvmagent.JolokiaServer). This agent uses JDK’s own HTTP Server which comes with OpenJDK/Oracle JVMs (Version 1.6 or later).

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:jolokia="http://www.jolokia.org/jolokia-spring/schema/config"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
           http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
           https://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
           http://www.jolokia.org/jolokia-spring/schema/config
           https://www.jolokia.org/jolokia-config.xsd">

  <jolokia:agent lookupConfig="false" systemPropertiesMode="never">
    <jolokia:config autoStart="true" host="0.0.0.0" port="8778" .... />
  </jolokia:agent>

</beans>
IDE support

With a decent IDE like IntelliJ IDEA you get completion support on the configuration attributes so it can be easily determined which configuration options are available. Even better, there is also some documentation for each attribute (e.g. by using "Quick documentation" with CTRL-Q in IDEA).

Just in case you don’t want to use the Jolokia Spring namespace you can also use plain beans to configure a JVM agent. The following examples shows the example above with only base Spring bean configurations (including an Spring EL expression):

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
       xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
           http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
           https://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
           http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
           https://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
           http://www.springframework.org/schema/util
           https://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util.xsd">

  <util:map id="configuration">
    <entry key="jmx.jolokiaPort" value="8778"/>
  </util:map>

  <bean name="server" id="jolokia" class="org.jolokia.support.spring.SpringJolokiaAgent">
    <property name="lookupConfig" value="false"/>
    <property name="systemPropertiesMode" value="never"/>
    <property name="config">
      <bean class="org.jolokia.support.spring.SpringJolokiaConfigHolder">
        <property name="config">
          <util:map>
            <entry key="autoStart" value="true"/>
            <entry key="host" value="0.0.0.0"/>
            <entry key="port" value="#{configuration['jmx.jolokiaPort']}"/>
          </util:map>
        </property>
      </bean>
    </property>
  </bean>

</beans>

This style is not recommended, as Jolokia configuration namespace is much easier to read.

Jolokia custom XML Schema supports few top-level elements which are described next.

An example of application based on pure Spring Framework is available at examples/spring in Jolokia GitHub repository.

<jolokia:agent>

<jolokia:agent> declares a Jolokia server with a configuration as defined in an embedded <jolokia:config> configuration section.

Supported attributes are:

Name Description Default value

lookupConfig

If set to true, Spring’s application context is searched for additional beans of org.jolokia.support.spring.SpringJolokiaConfigHolder class (declared either directly or using <jolokia:config>) that are used to configure the agent.

false

lookupServices

If set to true, Spring’s application context is searched for additional beans of org.jolokia.server.core.service.api.JolokiaService. These beans are added to Jolokia internal context as services used by the Agent.

false

systemPropertiesMode

Specifies how system properties with jolokia. prefix (the prefix is then stripped) affect Jolokia Agent configuration. There are three modes available:

  • never - No lookup is done on system properties as all. This is the default mode.

  • fallback - System properties with a prefix jolokia. are used as fallback configuration values if not specified locally in the Spring application context. E.g. jolokia.port=8888 will change the port on which the agent is listening to 8888 if the port is not explicitly specified in the configuration.

  • override - System properties with a prefix jolokia. are used as configuration values even if they are specified locally in the Spring application context. E.g. jolokia.port=8888 will change the port on which the agent is listening to 8888 in any case.

never

exposeApplicationContext

If set to true, additional org.jolokia.support.spring.backend.SpringRequestHandler is added to the agent, so we can invoke Spring bean operations using Jolokia protocol.

false

<jolokia:agent> element may contain child <jolokia:config> element that can be used to configure the agent in-place. <jolokia:config> takes as attributes all the configuration parameters for the JVM agent as described in JVM agent configuration options. In addition, there is an extra attribute autoStart which allows for automatically starting the HTTP server during the initialization of the application context. By default this is set to true, so the server starts up automatically. <jolokia:config> has an order attribute, which determines the config merge order: The higher order configs will be merged later and hence will override conflicting parameters. By default, external config lookup is disabled.

<jolokia:log> child element may be specified to configure one of the supported log handles used by Jolokia. These are:

<jolokia:mbean-server>

With <jolokia:mbean-server> the Jolokia specific MBeanServer can be specified. This is especially useful for adding it to <context:mbean-export> so that this MBeanServer is used for registering @ManagedResource and @JsonMBean. Remember, MBean registered at the Jolokia MBeanServer never will show up in an JSR-160 client except when annotated with @JsonMBean.

See JMX Support for more information.

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:jolokia="http://www.jolokia.org/jolokia-spring/schema/config"
       xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
           http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans https://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
           http://www.springframework.org/schema/context https://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
           http://www.jolokia.org/jolokia-spring/schema/config https://www.jolokia.org/jolokia-config.xsd">

  <context:mbean-export server="jolokiaServer"/>
  <jolokia:mbean-server id="jolokiaServer"/>

</beans>

Support for Spring Boot in Jolokia

Spring Boot is using all functionality from Spring Framework and adds a lot of convenient programming and architecture patterns (idioms) for developers.

With pure Spring Framework, we had to declare org.jolokia.support.spring.SpringJolokiaAgent directly or using <jolokia:agent> custom element. We could also use @Configuration and @Bean annotations. However Spring Boot provides several other methods to provide Jolokia functionality to your Spring application.

Registering Agent servlet as Spring bean

Servlets, Filters, and Listeners can be registered directly as @Bean annotated beans and Spring Boot will register them directly into embedded servlet container.

In simplest form we could use:

@Configuration
public class AppConfig {

  @Bean
  public AgentServlet jolokia() {
    return new AgentServlet();
  }

}

However without a way to specify URL mapping we may conflict with registration of Spring’s own DispatcherServlet.

This is why it’s better to declare beans of org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.ServletRegistrationBean class:

@Configuration
public class AppConfig {

  @Bean
  public ServletRegistrationBean<AgentServlet> jolokia() {
    ServletRegistrationBean<AgentServlet> jolokiaServlet = new ServletRegistrationBean<>(new AgentServlet(), "/jolokia/*");
    jolokiaServlet.setLoadOnStartup(0);
    jolokiaServlet.setAsyncSupported(true);
    jolokiaServlet.setInitParameters(Map.of(ConfigKey.DEBUG.getKeyValue(), "true"));
    jolokiaServlet.setInitParameters(Map.of(ConfigKey.AGENT_DESCRIPTION.getKeyValue(), "Spring Servlet Jolokia Agent"));
    return jolokiaServlet;
  }

}

This is enough for Spring Boot with org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web starter to register Jolokia Servlet under /jolokia/* mapping.

An example of application using Spring Boot is available at examples/spring-boot in Jolokia GitHub repository.

Registering Agent servlet under Spring Boot actuator

Spring Boot actuator endpoints allow to access various controls in your application.

While Spring Boot 3 removed auto-configuration of Jolokia 1 actuator endpoint (because of JakartaEE 9+ incompatibility with Jolokia 1 servlet), Jolokia 2 now provides own auto-configuration in org.jolokia:jolokia-support-spring.

With just few dependencies:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.jolokia</groupId>
  <artifactId>jolokia-support-spring</artifactId>
  <version>2.0.1</version>
</dependency>

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
  <version>${version.spring-boot}</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
  <version>${version.spring-boot}</version>
</dependency>

We can run a Spring Boot application without single Jolokia bean configuration. This is entire main() method:

@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    SpringApplication.run(Application.class);
  }

}

And this is the application.properties configuration file:

server.port = 8181

management.endpoint.jolokia.config.debug = true
management.endpoint.jolokia.config.agentDescription = Jolokia Spring Boot Actuator agent

management.endpoints.web.exposure.include = health, jolokia

Having all this, Spring Boot with actuator enabled will discover Jolokia own auto-configuration. Because Jolokia is properly exposed, we may now access Jolokia Agent using http://localhost:8181/actuator/jolokia URL:

$ curl -s 'http://localhost:8181/actuator/jolokia' | jq .
{
  "request": {
    "type": "version"
  },
  "value": {
    "agent": "2.0.1",
    "protocol": "7.2",
    "details": {
      "agent_version": "2.0.1",
      "agent_id": "192.168.0.221-91398-4ee6c0f5-servlet",
      "agent_description": "Jolokia Spring Boot Actuator agent",
      "secured": false,
      "url": "http://192.168.0.221:8181/actuator/jolokia"
    },
    "id": "192.168.0.221-91398-4ee6c0f5-servlet",
    "config": {
      "agentId": "192.168.0.221-91398-4ee6c0f5-servlet",
      "debug": "true",
      "agentDescription": "Jolokia Spring Boot Actuator agent"
    },
    "info": {
      "proxy": {},
      "jmx": {}
    }
  },
  "status": 200,
  "timestamp": 1702653722
}

/jolokia actuator is listed under http://localhost:8181/actuator:

jolokia endpoints json

What’s more, with IDE support, Jolokia configuration properties are suggested:

jolokia actuator endpoint

An example of application using Spring Boot and its actuator features is available at examples/spring-boot-actuator in Jolokia GitHub repository.

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